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Generator, batteries & power supply

hueyville

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Good idea but seems like a lot going on. Just a string of batteries plus small generator gets heavy. All my batteries are on Power Poles or bigger connectors so able to move as individual units. If all on wheels and never have to pick up then that's a small issue. Two radios can run off batteries so no power supply needed but a buck and boost transformer to keep voltage stable to radios or "converters" assuming talking about inverters. Said a couple or three of those. Inexpensive small units are everywhere. Issue is most will not run a device of any significance.

I would set batteries and smallest generator can get away with. If inverter generator which are common now it's one less inverter needed. Won't stress battery chargers with dirty power. Then one modified square wave or pure sine wave inverter as big as can afford. 1,500 watts will run a small microwave or corded power tool. The 400 watt cheap square wave see so many of will burn up under a load and the nasty power will harm devices hooked to. Killed a circular saw with one.

Have four small generators. All are 1,800 to 2,200 watts. Two conventional, two inverter technology. Almost only use the inverter units now with conventional as backups. Some 1,800 watt generators output 1,800 peak on good day, others will give 1,800 at low idle. The popular chinese harbor freight type units usually hit rated watts on their best day, wide open when new. Honeywell makes a decent mid grade unit. Honda is king but pay a premium for name.

All my stuff is more modular. Radios either on radio table or in go-boxes. Generators either bolted to pad or in location ready to move as needed. Inverters mounted where needed and some in go-boxes. All my go-boxes are sealed metal and at ground potential. Building an all in one box is a decent concept. Calculate watts of output on solar panels then size to get output needed. Will it fit in/on box? Panels need to be installed where angle can be altered to keep facing sun best possible during day. A mobile box on wheels will be able to move when falls into shadows or turn as sun moves.

Anything you build is a learning experience and will be of some use. I suggest everyone do all projects can. Then test it to see if meets goals. As use will discover modifications that are needed, features want to add and parts that don't work. What I am building now does not even resemble a decade ago. Draw it, think about each feature, build and put in service. A month of testing if happy roll in corner. If not, reconfigure and test again. Never discourage anyone from trying and use as much stuff as have available already. If buying all devices new then study each piece and get best available for budget.

I build small boxes with a battery or two, trickle charger to keep charged and a half dozen different plugs. Plug up once a month for a few days to keep batteries happy and when need power grab a power cube. Plug device need to run into it till protection circuitry stops drawing battery past 50% and does permanent damage. The better the battery, faster can pull down.

My experience is lots of solar to charge batteries. Would set up box so panels charge one battery at a time. Better to have one fully charged battery than three uncharged. Let panels top first off then plug up next. Then if get all charged find another to top off.

Sleep disorders give a person time to absorb a lot of information. While surfing net for rifle parts infomercial ran on new Generac I 200 2,000 watt inverter generator. Quite than Honda, purpose built, more features and cheaper. Priced $799. Had $800 set aside for a new scope but now wanting to spend my scope cash on the Generac. Looks like good machine but may be better letting them do a production run, see if any bugs, then jump. Lots of features and way quiet.
 
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yellowhand

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I'm going to build it and go from there.
Got two 1500 watt converters, the good kind!:biggrin:
Two big generators are Coleman's, old models, 8000 peak, 6500 running, bought about 15 years ago, one still new in box, other, ran monthly, maintained, etc.
Bought two identical models, for spare parts????:biggrin:
 

Fn/form

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Huey, question for ya.
Had this running through my head for sometime now.

Envision a wooden box/cabinet, ...
At that weight I'd like to use a cylinder cart, the type used by welders with big wheels. Balance so it tips back with some effort, not a lot. Would roll easier over things like extension cords and such... even grass.

Solar is slow... maybe an inverter generator with DC charging output?

Sun shielding for batteries, inverter, possibly sdded fan cooling for the inverter. Most manufacturers list expected battery life at constant, lower ideal temp. Heat seriously affects a battery's lifespan.
 

hueyville

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Today while, at work since New Years plan was to pull all batteries in inventory and top off with a fresh charge. Rounded up the majority of shop chargers not counting trickle chargers or power supplies that keep their dedicated stacks topped off day in, day out, year in year out.



Starting from top is a basic 6 or 12 volt six amp basic battery charger. Moving down is a Stanley all battery type 6 volt, 12 volt, 24 volt and 48 volt unit that is one of my two favorite chargers. Too bad for you guys in California and Oregon as for some reason this really good and fair priced charger marketed by Stanley says "not for sale in California or Oregon". Must suck living in states that regulate everything from light bulbs to battery chargers not to mention firearms.

Next is full size shop charger with two amp trickle charge, forty amp fast charge or 200 amp start mode. Next is a Schumacher two, six or ten amp charger that works with standard, SLA, gell cell or any battery type. Bottom is a NAPA six or twelve volt unit that self adjusts for standard, SLA, gell cell or any other type battery with multiple charge rates from two amps to 125 amp start cycle. Having multiple charging options for battery types, voltage or amperage is imperative.

While gathering chargers and checking storage room with myriad of batteries got an unfortunate call.







The subcontractor have been subcontracting for Ma Bell for years is closing their doors. As of January 1, 2016 they are closing all warehouses in seven states. All company full time technicians and all subcontract weekend, holiday and Level III techs that are authorized to work both AC and DC sides plus internals of power supplies are unemployed. Guess it's a good thing I never quit my day job. So unless able to find another Ma Bell energy contractor my battery hook up is gone. Have three battery racks at work, four at home with one installed recently, unless pick up another gig, what have in storage room is it. Luckily all the big stacks of NiCads are warranted for 20 years with 30 year life expectancy. The SLA telecom units tend to last an average of 15 years.

So now I have to become serious about maintaining batteries unless pick up new account. Have enough NiCads for two more stacks with 1,000 amp hour units. Have enough of the smaller SLA to build out two more stacks like last of 24 batteries each. Over 500 amp hour per stack of the SLA's that will last 12 to 20 years and another 2,000 amp hours of batteries that will last past my life expectancy puts me in great shape if don't share. Just in past week given six batteries to Files members. Promised two to another and will fulfill that. Still have lots of charge controllers, connectors and such should be able to share. Met a hook up who builds nice ready to install wind generators and just ordered two and going to install to keep a few of the stacks soon to add at home charged without grid. Will keep my big wind and solar stuff in storage. If SHTF will have enough batteries at house to run all systems over a week without any charging device. If wind blows and sun shines can get all equipment deployed can probably run 25% of necessary systems 24/7/365. Generators will have to pick up the slack. Dang it. Going to miss all the free battery overage if can't get another emergency power gig.
 

hueyville

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Been going through all my stacks of work batteries now that the gig is up. Ma Bell has company techs doing batteries now and contractor was working for didn't have enough other contracts to survive. Found a battery yesterday that was from a replacement job and not disposed of. Put a charger on it and would not take a charge. Added this little desulfator to terminals and in matter of a few minutes battery began taking charge. Left on all night and this morning battery load tested at 70% of rated capacity. Put a continuous load on it for an hour and still was at 60% reserve. Always used a big Shumaker desulfator in past. Nice to see the pocket size self powered unit did it's job.





Photos reversed first shows back to 12.8 volts, second shows it in pulse mode. Have back on battery at 1.5 amp charge again tonight to see if able get battery back up above 13 volts and at least 80% or more. From nothing to 70% is good but not liking to discharge batteries past 50% it's not huge headroom to work with unless want to let the buck and boost charger suck it's guts out.
 

hueyville

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So unless I can find a new telecom subcontractor to do Ma Bell after hours emergency power calls may not be any more batteries. Rounding up all my extras and battery racks from where replaced old racks with new. Have managed to find enough 28 amp hour batteries to fill this rack completely full and all are taking 100% maintenance charge and testing full rated reserve capacity or better as are generally under rated.



Rack is going to hold a total of 48 batteries and top shelf will hold chargers, inverters, AC and DC switching devices, etc. Enough room between batteries and bottom of shelf above each run for the charge controllers. Will hook four 12 volt batteries up for 48 volts total per string with three strings per shelf. Two shelves are going to run a 220/240 volt modified square wave inverter and the other two a 120 volt true sine wave inverter. Will also have 48 volt, 24 volt and 12 volt DC taps. Almost finished topping off each battery with a slow 2 amp maintenance charge then sneak it in house without wife asking why bringing more batteries home.

Just finished a new dedicated stack in radio room and this will be another 1,300 plus amp hours of batteries in house. Will be pushing 10,000 amp hours total combined reserve capacity with this and the other rack prepping with 20 plus year rated NiCads. Also found a stack of these 38 amp hour batteries that are all taking full charge and testing out above rated capacity under a load.



Have a total of 32 of these for 1,200 plus amp hour reserve plan to wire into one rack to be dedicated solely to HF radio amplifier. Never have run big amp off batteries because it's four big tubes are power hogs. Now will feel like not wasting valuable reserve to run amp and won't be stuck at 200 watts maximum output. When finished will possibly have a few left to give to needy hams. Have given some to other Files members and have enough to fulfill promised batteries yet delivered. Nice feeling of security having enough batteries to last a couple days before firing a generator or ability to run silent if don't want to draw attention that have power from generator noise. It's a lot of darn work piling up batteries neatly and then adding systems to convert to useable AC. This will give me a total of six stacks at home and two at work. Pretty good start by most standards, even commercial applications.
 

hueyville

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As a battery gadget addict seldom see any nifty power source, especially on clearance rack and leave without at least one. Below are three five volt DC devices which is very common voltage as is what computer USB outputs and is board voltage inside a myriad of devices. Most cell phones charge at five volts along with others.







These three devices all charge and output five volts. Can charge from wall charger from cell phone charger or any five volt device can tether up. In first photo see a 120 volt wall charger with 5 volt DC output into a USB port. The cable in all pictures is a standard USB to micro USB and kit also has a USB to mini USB cable plus a USB to USB. The small round battery is about the size of a roll of dimes and will charge a small phone twice or bigger smart phone at least once plus a bit. It has a standard and micro USB port.

The black APC battery have had since mini USB was the more common connector and will charge a small cell three times and my big @$$ Galaxy Active twice from near total discharge. As most APC brand devices is well built, durable and passed the test of time.

The white unit holds four rechargeable AAA batteries and has a USB port only. Cool thing is it will recharge the batteries from a five volt source so doubles as a backup battery charger. Somewhere wandering are three similar units that use four AA batteries which pack a huge amount of reserve. They will charge my Galaxy Active four times and also function as battery chargers. Know one I'd in truck console and another is in my daily carry pack but wandering and not worth effort of digging out as the white AAA unit conveys the idea well enough. The three AA units all do have standard USB and micro USB ports both. My GPS, phone and other go-bag items tether to any one of these extra battery packs. Have made up cables to use the 12 volt units to charge or run my go-bag ham radios with if need. Saves carrying a bunch of different proprietary batteries that only work with one device. A 5 volt and a 12 volt output unit with mix of applicable cables for your devices and no matter what DC energy device can scrounge or AC to tether to and can get all devices ready to run. Still doesn't give an excuse to leave your compass and hard copy map at home.

Have several other similar devices that output 12 volts DC with either internal batteries or AA and/or AAA batteries. My AA devices run with AAA's also in a pinch so give a lot of options to keep critical devices running.
 

hueyville

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Since wife has been recovering from MVA requiring 24/7 monitoring have had a few people come stay with her from 30 to 90 minutes here and there then day to almost a week in other instances. The two cousins of wifes that stayed four and six days noticed me swapping batteries on two of my chargers almost every day. Since wife has had the head injury where her vision is loopy uses flashlights all the time. Can't read at all without the extra light.

Both of her cousins commented on how much trouble it seemed to be to keep batteries charged comparing cost of rechargeables to nicads and pitch in trash so started showing them dates on each set. As they saw a mix of dates mostly in the year 2000 to year 2012 date with quite a few dated as far back as 1995 & 1997. Asked them if used batteries at rate we do how much would it cost to pitch them in the trash when some have been recharged over 1,000 cycles. It does take a pair of good PowerEx/Maha charger/refresh/break in chargers and pair of slow chargers which I prefer to bring a set of AAA's up to full charge in 20 to 24 hours and AA's in 24 to 28 plus odd times for 9v, C, D and CR 123's and cost on some of the button batteries we recharge how much money has been saved in past 25 years and some of the non dated likely go back to 1988 earlier when got my first solar chargers but didnt date them back then.

Though estimated have saved at least a thousand or more dollars on batteries for small devices after paying the extra for rechargeables plus chargers they thought it was still a big waste of time and my mention could keep charge if grid went down for months or years went totally over their heads. Idea power could be out more than a few days following a storm seemed impossible to them. I explained EMP, grid failure scenarios and got blank stares like I had lost my mind.

Edit:
Since wife is pretty loopy still from brain injury been searching areas don't normally and now have fresh batteries in every device found so far. With this have also found packs of nicads she has carried as spares till discharged due to time and have over 160 spare AAA's cycled and ready for use with more to go before start on the bucket of AA's, C, D, 9 volt, etc. Had no idea how many packs she hoarded for a few years and never thought to trade them for fresh charged if didn't use them. Some she may have used and just forgot to return to me for charging. I want to know all my small devices have at least two battery swaps in line before have to worry about recharging if dealing with bigger issue.
 
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mountainmoped

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Since wife has been recovering from MVA requiring 24/7 monitoring have had a few people come stay with her from 30 to 90 minutes here and there then day to almost a week in other instances. The two cousins of wifes that stayed four and six days noticed me swapping batteries on two of my chargers almost every day. Since wife has had the head injury where her vision is loopy uses flashlights all the time. Can't read at all without the extra light.

Both of her cousins commented on how much trouble it seemed to be to keep batteries charged comparing cost of rechargeables to nicads and pitch in trash so started showing them dates on each set. As they saw a mix of dates mostly in the year 2000 to year 2012 date with quite a few dated as far back as 1995 & 1997. Asked them if used batteries at rate we do how much would it cost to pitch them in the trash when some have been recharged over 1,000 cycles. It does take a pair of good PowerEx/Maha charger/refresh/break in chargers and pair of slow chargers which I prefer to bring a set of AAA's up to full charge in 20 to 24 hours and AA's in 24 to 28 plus odd times for 9v, C, D and CR 123's and cost on some of the button batteries we recharge how much money has been saved in past 25 years and some of the non dated likely go back to 1988 earlier when got my first solar chargers but didnt date them back then.

Though estimated have saved at least a thousand or more dollars on batteries for small devices after paying the extra for rechargeables plus chargers they thought it was still a big waste of time and my mention could keep charge if grid went down for months or years went totally over their heads. Idea power could be out more than a few days following a storm seemed impossible to them. I explained EMP, grid failure scenarios and got blank stares like I had lost my mind.

Edit:
Since wife is pretty loopy still from brain injury been searching areas don't normally and now have fresh batteries in every device found so far. With this have also found packs of nicads she has carried as spares till discharged due to time and have over 160 spare AAA's cycled and ready for use with more to go before start on the bucket of AA's, C, D, 9 volt, etc. Had no idea how many packs she hoarded for a few years and never thought to trade them for fresh charged if didn't use them. Some she may have used and just forgot to return to me for charging. I want to know all my small devices have at least two battery swaps in line before have to worry about recharging if dealing with bigger issue.
The president of our local ham club has been buying battery packs and splitting them up to suit his needs. These batteries are dirt cheap and work well. I bought a small spot welder to make my battery packs. Here is the link to their web site:
https://batteryhookup.com/
 

hueyville

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I have a commercially made spot welder for connecting small battery cells normally use to rebuild my cordless tool batteries that works well. That said can go to uTube and are several videos that show how to make and use basically the same tool out of spare and scavenged electrical parts for free or almost free. Just do a search of Google or uTube and they will pop up.
 

imacoonass01

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If you try something like this, you wouldn't want to use car batteries.
You need to use deep cycle batteries instead.
Car batteries aren't designed to be discharged to the degree that an application like this would do.

You also would need a large amount of battery capacity to run an electric fridge, lights and a small heater for a few days.

I have a little bit of personal experience with this.

In my case, I have a cabin in the woods and there's no electricity.
I didn't want a generator making all that noise whenever I wanted electric power.
I wanted to have basic lights, music (an old laptop computer with a music library on it),a small stereo amp, radio, the ability to charge battery packs for cordless tools, etc.
I even wanted to run one of those large coolers that run off 12 volts.
More importantly, I wanted this stuff to be available 24/7.

After doing this for a few summer vacations, I arrived at a solution that works OK, and doesn't require a large battery capacity.

I have two Trojan L16H 6volt 420 amp hour deep cycle batteries wired in series for 12volts.
These batteries weigh about 120 pounds each.

I have an 1100 watt Exeltech pure sine wave inverter connected to them.
I went with pure sine wave so there wouldn't be any issues with plugging things into it that don't like non-pure sign wave AC.

I use 7 watt fluorescent screw in light bulb replacements for lights.
I found that even the small electric coolers pull between 5-10 amps at 12 volts.
This and especially if somebody else brought one along, really drew the batteries down when run 24/7.

So I use an old propane powered refrigerator/freezer out of an old RV to take my refrigeration off of the electric circuit.
It will run 24/7 for about a week and a half on a full 20 pound (gas grill sized) tank.

If I need heat, I use a kerosene heater, or burn wood in a small stove.

For cooking, I have a big tank of bottle gas outside.

So now I can run my system for 2 days between recharges if I don't waste energy. (I usually charge every day so I don't discharge the batteries as far, thus extending their life. They 'aint cheap LOL )
It consists of 7 watt fluorescent lights, an old laptop computer, an old Marantz 1060 30 watt per channel amp, a fluorescent shop light for an outdoor light when needed at night.
I try to charge any cordless tool battery packs when I do my main batery charge.


So now you ask, what does it take to fully charge these 2 Trojan L16H 6volt 420 amp hour deep cycle batteries wired in series?

I have a Honda 6.5hp motor, with a modified 65 or 70 amp (I forget which) Delco alternator.
IT'S MODIFIED SO THAT IT DOESN'T USE AN INTERNAL VOLTAGE REGULATOR, BUT INSTEAD WIRED TO ALLOW ME TO CONTROL FIELD CURRENT EXTERNALLY.
MY NEIGHBORHOOD AUTO ELECTRIC SHOP DID THIS FOR ME.

IT'S IMPORTANT THAT YOU DO THIS, BECAUSE IF YOU JUST HOOK UP AN ALTERNATOR WITH THE STANDARD VOLTAGE REGULATOR TO DEEP CYCLE BATTERIES, YOU RISK EXPLODING THE BATTERIES WITH THE HIGH CURRENT THE ALTERNATOR WILL PRODUCE (BECAUSE IT'S NOT BEGINNING THE CHARGE REGULATED BY CURRENT INSTEAD OF VOLTAGE), OR YOU WILL BURN UP THE ALTERNATOR.

Just for this pair of batteries, I need to begin the charge cycle with 40-50 amps. (plus a little more to account for any current being drawn in the cabin from the inverter, which for each 1 amp of AC, it pulls about 10 amps from the battery bank)
It runs at the level of amps until the battery voltage reaches 14.8 volts, then the current is backed down gradually as the batteries charge to keep the charging voltage at 14.8 volts.
So you can see that it's easy to run the alternator at close to it's rated capacity pretty easy.
The good thing is, it's not in a hot engine compartment, so that helps.


So say I would want to double this battery bank?
Already the small Delco alternator won't have enough capacity to properly charge the battery bank, as I would then need 80-100 amps.
And the 6.5hp motor would be getting close to not being big enough.

I'm planning on going to a battery bank of four L16H batteries in the near future, so I recently upgraded my alternator to a Leece-Neville 165amp externally regulated alternator.
These are pretty expensive.


So getting back to your idea of using your generator to charge a battery bank during the time you have it running?
Imagine the size of AC generator it would take to run an AC battery charger big enough to charge these?

Anyway, MY POINT in writing all this is to make the point that what you're wanting to do is a bigger project than you would think. :)

I know when I started down this road back in 2000, I had no idea it would take as much as it has, just to have 420 amp hours @ 12volts capacity.

I have thought of messing with some solar panels in the future, but haven't yet, because the cabin is in thick woods, and there's not enough sun.


Have you thought of buying a used set of Leaf car batteries?
 

Timber Wolf

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I just put two new heavy duty golf cart batteries in my camper trailer. Five years ago I put two 210 AH batteries in and could camp two nights and three days (long weekend) without charging and still stay over 50% charged . Over time they got weaker and I needed to run the Honda 2000i a couple of hours every other day then every day toward the end. I decided to step it up a little with the replacements. They are a higher 260 AH rating and should be the chit. They are 25% stronger, 25% heavier, and only cost DOUBLE. Guess you pay to play. It will be worth it if I get a few years of my long weekend camping trips without needing to run the Honda.
 

hueyville

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If really serious about batteries look at SAFTs Lithium line of telecom batteries. The down side is they are very expensive and mine (have to be installed in sets and cost $3,000 to $5,000 per set based on size rack installing in and reserve power capacity) are all rack mounted and require an expensive switching power supply but can be tapped for 12v, 24v or 48 volts. Other great features of the lithiumlithium are six times lighter than lead acid and come with a twenty year warranty that is full replacement and not pro-rated partial credit like some batteries. If they die 15 to 19 years from now they send their tech to replace at zero charge. The SAFT engineers that trained company techs I was working on the side for as a contractor told us reason they were able to comfortably offer twenty year warranty was they expected a 95%+ thirty year life cycle. If money is not as much of an issue as longevity and reliability in long term usage such as multi-year grid failure then professional lithiums are the way to go. Yet to see even a single one fail for any reason and been installing them for over seven years. Have seen entire lead acid stringspop because of one battery overheating the first really hot day of summer and placed under a load then blow in the othethe there ateacher to it.

Have several racks of 100 amp/hour lead acid telecom batteries, one rack of 130 amp/hour telecoms and one rack of 80 amp/hour all with four batteries per tray and each tray tapped at 12v, 24v and 48v with ability to connect multiple or all trays if tap at same voltage. Even at DC the Powerpole connectors are one size smaller than use on electric fork lifts and wires are diameter of my index finger. Have several big square wave inverters, a few big modified square wave inverters and a few mixed size pure sine wave inverters based on how clean power needs to be for device running. All have charge controllers that turn on/off charge to each individual battery as needed and thermal protection monitors that isolates any battery that overheats before it causes the entire string to go into thermal run away. That said thermal protection switches nor charge controllers are 100%, while built to be rugged for telecom use are built buy the millions by lowest bidder.

Also have two racks one with five shelves of twelve 38 amp/hour batteries per shelf connected in four battery strings and the other has five shelves with twelve 25 amp/hour batteries per shelf in four battery strings. Able to use smaller wires from battery to battery rather than bus bars or cables like in the large batteries but have to step up to cables coming off each tray. If grid fails I charge batteries from generators and run sensitive electronics off batteries using inverters if needed that quality of power output matches device running. It's a complicated deal at a glance but not horrible once have a little experience.

While telecom batteries, like deep cycle marine batteries are built to be durable even when stored in racks in temperature controlled enclosures they can be over stressed if hit with a large load that is trying to suck energy out of them faster than able to deliver. Have had much better luck using them long term in my applications if add DC capacitors between the batteries and first device such as a big inverter or large draw DC device. Most AC capacitors can be used for DC but do not do as well of a job capping the voltage if battery is charged to 15 volts and feeding a 13.7 volt device that may be sensitive to overvoltage. Almost all grid tie inverters used in solar systems where power is either directed to home and overage into grid to escape cost of storage batteries use DC capacitors for high frequency switching currents and to provide energy storage and if have grid tie system it's a spare part would keep if feel capable of diagnosing and replacing them if pop and are living in SHTF conditions where ordering up a new inverter or capacitor is not easily accomplished. Also learned using smaller DC capacitors they will act like a switch to shut off power flow once the DC plate is fully charged and not have the instant amperage on hand device may need. Now access to DC capacitors from electric vehicles from cars, buses and even diesel electric locomotives has greatly increased if know people who have access to them as salvage parts or willing to buy new. I have to scavenge and beg for used but have a wide network of electrical freaks who can seem to find things they don't need and will give away or trade for other devices.

While city of Chicago has bragged for a long time about their electric bus fleet most are/were diesel electric because of issues with batteries. It was not till 2014 when they added two fully battery powered electric busses in their fleet and soon after my adopted son was up there working on them. He has degrees in mechanical and electrical engineering along with an MBA and minor in chemical engineering. He started out of school with Cummins and is now troubleshooting locomotives and buses all over Asia and Europe while based out of Australia with a major mass transportation parts and service company. He is just as likely to be wearing greasy coveralls twisting wrenches as he is wearing business casual designing upgrades or writing new technical service data sheets at a computer after discovering a inherit design problem and the fix for it while in the field. He is often at his desk in Australia and suddenly told an charter plane is waiting for him because a locomotive is sitting stuck on a major track and nobody can figure out what is wrong much less fix it so keeps his suitcases and specialty tools/meters in trunk of his car. Once he tears into something he replaces all parts but if rips out a used but working 0.75 Kw DC or similar capacitor will ship it to me.

DC link capacitors are commonly used in power converters as an intermediary buffer between an input source to an output load that have different instantaneous power, voltages, and frequencies. In electric vehicle (EV) applications, DC link capacitors help offset the effects of inductance in inverters, motor controllers, and battery systems. They also serve as filters that protect EV subsystems from voltage spikes, surges, and electromagnetic interference (EMI).
Having a capacitor between your batteries and load or even a current limiting capacitor between whatever device is charging your batteries and the battery bank can keep them running much longer reducing the occasional battery busting and puking it's guts out in your tray or rack. Even if can't get hold of big electric vehicle DC-DC capacitors many run of the mill larger AC capacitors can be used if nothing more than to keep voltage sag between batteries and say an inverter causing device to be starved for energy and be harmed. A standard electrolytic capacitor rated in 180,000 microfarads at 50 volts range can be a good start to help keep a single inverter getting clean full power. Basically a capacitor the size of a twelve ounce can to the size of a five gallon bucket is an item to never be discarded and if come across big caps don't want I will always pay the shipping to get more.

Saturday spent most of the the day servicing home generators with new plugs, air filters, oil changes and oil filters on the two with oil pumps. Went down early wrote down model numbers and serial numbers then looked them up. My 8,500 watt Generac like my 5,500 watt unit are both different than had stuck in my mind for years. Both were purchased before added central HVAC unit with all the HEPA/activated carbon whole house air filtration units, HEPA and activated carbon clean air intake to keep house at positive pressure, etc. Initially had a single floor furnace plus four window units on main floor with two window mouted heat/ac units downstairs, had the gas floor furnace and two ancient huge leaking window units when purchased it but upgraded window units with the four smaller new units upstairs so able to zone areas more easily plus two with heat in basement till able to do a full central high efficiency dual fuel system. When power went out just ran A/C units in rooms occupied and the gas floor furnace even used a non electric thermostat so had heat even if didn't run a generator thusband didn't need a big generator.

For years have used the 8,500 watt unit which has run both refridgerators, chest freezer, new HVAC since added in either heat (gas supplimental heat rather than heatpump mode) or A/C mode being careful to not overload allowing a couple lights along with television and keeping small things like clocks and small electronics working only. Believed it was 8,500 watt continuous with 10,000 watt surge as way most Generacs are rated. Turns out it's an oddball and rated like Harbor Freight and many Chinese units where they put peak load in model number but continuous load on it is only 7,000 watts. The backup generator is a Generac 5,500 watt professional model with 7,500 watt surge so do not have power I thought.

Have an 8,000 watt with 10,000 watt surge unit on my service truck and went through it yesterday in case have an immediate need for the extra 2,000 watt surge headroom can bring it home and use jib with winch on bucket to set in place. Still have to go through my big diesel generator not run since purchased it about eight years ago. It's a two cylinder military three phase unit with too much power for the house but eventually plan to pad mount it at home so able to provide neighbors with power if they want to be helpful and earn an easy power solution when grid is down.

Have been shopping a new home generator hard and because of never having a Generac fail me even the unit that has been running my home for 28 years now and is over stressed within reason often if not paying attention to turn something off when HVAC spools up the compressor when running in A/C mode. As important to rated and true output due to having so many sensitive control boards in my dual fuel high efficiency HVAC plus house full of ever more complicated electronics every year don't want to find myself a decade or two down the road buying another generator or replacing something the generator burned up. Am looking as closely at the low total harmonic disruption ratings as the wattage. Generac has the XP, XG, and similar prefix then little letters such as "e" in the suffix that mean a lot. Have found an affordable Generac with less than 5% THD meaning it's outputting clean power but in an affordable unit 8,000 watt continuous with 10,000 watt surge is best have found except for one issue. It uses an "oil splash" slinger for lubrication instead of an oil pump with oil filter which I feel is mandatory for long life. Both my 5,500 watt/7,000 watt peak and 8,000 watt units have oil pumps and filters and both are over 20 years old with a lot of use running without any issues other than normal service.

To get the power I need with my maximum 5% THD they made a 12,500 watt /15,000 watt peak machine that has recently been discontinued which has a true oil pump but can't find anything but vendors showing it "out of stock" though show it still current on their websites. I can find the XP...e or XG...e with oil pump in a 17,500 watt/20,000 watt peak unit only that has a low THD but the price is a deal breaker unless I sell one or two of my other large generators.

Would sell my diesel three phase to fund this machine but seems like few people want a two cylinder diesel generator except commercial folks that like me buy new equipment when their business depends on it. Listed the diesel on Craigslist and only got insulting offers and tire kickers. Because people steal the batteries off it if leave on trailer at work to crank it for someone is an ordeal then when walk away because had no money or offer less than half of asking price have about resolved am going to have to keep it and afraid to sell my 8,000 watt unit connected to house if not sure the unit I want is sitting on someone's floor locally so can have it sitting in place within 24 hours ready to run. Generac has one 10,000 watt/12,500 peak unit but runs on fuel injection and is reputed to be a fuel hog. Am not comfortable with a first generation fuel injection gemerator. Life is complicated when you overthink and obsess about everything.
 

hueyville

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Was discussing fuel storage with my commercial fuel vendor that delivers my bulk gasoline and diesel fuel. He mentioned to me that the seald five gallon cans and 55 gallon drums of 100 octane racing fuel/aviation fuel has a rated five year storage life if seal is not broken. That stated said has seen people store it for well over a decade in manner can/drum does not rust and seal not broken then run their race car or plane with no performance lost. Began checking some discussion groups on the subject and some older retired Air Force wrenches said it was not uncommon for them to open 100 octane drums that were over thirty years old and pour in gasoline powered aircraft with zero issues. My fuel supplier mentioned he used to sell a product called 'BP Ultimate 102" which was 103 octane but they under rated it a fuzz and has clients that purchased it back in 2006 through 2009 when he stopped selling it who still have sealed cans and say its just as hot as when they purchased it. Now we know using too high of an octane is dangerous for many engines so if your engine is not rated for over 93 octane or been tuned to higher octane fuel proceed with caution.

That said in discussing how long I store my 92 octane ethanol free then twice a year to once a year burn the tanks almost empty then have them refilled he suggested I consider continuing as normal with one tank but with the other just renew the nitrogen blanket to reduce oxidation every two to three times per year then buy a few five gallon cans of 100 octane for storage. If its five or ten years before I need to burn the "old fuel" to test a small amount and if it acts up pour a couple cans of the 100 octane into the tank and see how my equipment then acts. My price for five gallon cans of 100 octane delivered is a little under $50 per can so having ten cans delivered. Ten or so years from now I may not want to wrestle a 55 gallon drum or break the seal on a big drum so even though its cheaper ordered the small cans. Going to keep my last ditch emergency tank topped off till next presidential election, keep renewing my nitrogen blanket and see how it goes. YMMV and try at your own risk.
 

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What that Texas man did is very similar to what I did with my 2007 Toyota Tacoma in 2008 or 2009 when we were without power here for 3 days. I ran a 3 bulb LCD light bar, charged cell phones, and ran a DVD/BlueRay/TV combo thing to keep the kids happy. When I bought the truck, I figured it would be the one piece I never used (built in 400 watt inverter to a NEMA 15 plugin in bed), it was intended for camping/tailgateing something I have no need for. Turned into to one of the most useful things on the truck at that time. Only used approx. 1/4 tank in that 3 days as well.
 

hueyville

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We have a 12 volt tube television, three 16" 12 volt DVD portable players each with four hour batteries, a refrigerator that runs of propane when electricity goes off and other gadgets that lighten the load on generator(s) and allow creature comforts. Luckily already have racks of big telecom batteries always on float charge, inverters, switching gear, etc and a collection of solar panels to deploy if needed already in place. When world goes sideways would not hurt to have a plan based on how severe, what may liberate for your needs in the initial confusion of social collapse and other items may collect as soon as safely able.

The Red Freaks Regional office is 2.5 miles from the Ponderosa, has a six foot chain link fence between the world and a dozen or so trailers equipped with emergency supplies but unless a person takes time to crack them open may get one that is full of disposable diapers, baby formula and blankets. Unless one has worked with them as a volunteer and knows what is in them or has a good idea. Two are full of medical, some emergency food, a few filled with mix of items and another emergency relief organization has two self sufficient communications trailers. The communications trailers have air conditioning, sleeping area, food prep, communications gear from ham radio to satellite up-links for voice and data.

Have tagged over 100 different traffic and railroad signal locations in a handheld GPS (not Google Earth) which are powered by solar panels with all the switching equipment and batteries within walking distance from the Ponderosa. In a single night mission on foot without a ladder (most just need a man, cordless impact driver with properly chosen set of sockets, specialty drivers plus an adjustable wrench and wire cutters) could easily slip out, get home with two to four 90 to 150 watt solar panels and have found two sights now with wind generators supplementing the solar panels. Most of the railroad equipment is placed out of sight of homes and roadway. Have to know how to defeat the alarms if anyone is monitoring them but once thats done could rape one site a night till had enough solar to add to my few panels likely could live well without firing generators.

Between phone switching equipment in remote terminals (on almost every street corner, subdivision entrance, tower site), traffic/railroad signals, other equipment commonly sitting around, dentist offices and doctors offices walking distance from house if a man had a couple friends to help run security and carry stuff back could take a bare site to prepped in a matter of a week by hitting many things your average looter would never consider, a man who moved fast could rack up. Most looters start with consumer electronics, liquor stores, high end clothing then pharmacies and so on. Commercial tower sites, railroad equipment, phone switching terminals, pre-staged FEMA equipment and every state EMA has pre-staged emergency supplies all over their states. South Carolina is littered with steel waterproof shipping containers sitting on concrete pads, inside chain link fences all filled with emergency supplies from medical to food to communications and power.

Much of this information is accessible by volunteering a few years or just by data mining your states and counties emergency planning they brag about on websites to make the sheep feel secured. Another option is volunteer, work hard and make yourself known for being willing, able till point of being "indispensable" and the local EMA which will be surrounded by cops first and National Guard second may have a small bedroom with two twin beds reserved for you and wife in the basement and feed you three meals a day for at least the first month but your home and preps may be raped to the ground when get back. Have sat at the local EMA overnight many times and worked 36 hour shifts in the communications room with a cot set up next to the radios which turn the important ones up loud enough to wake me if traffic comes across during a short nap. this type of work has been mostly winter storms, tornado outbreaks and lots of drills. But has earned a lot of good will and allowed me to glean a lot of knowledge that if system totally collapses know where lots of stuff is to gather if all the public servants go home and quit.

This is a hypothetical exercise only as odds are they will have enough resources to protect critical systems and may issue shoot orders on looters which is not good for survival purposes so having a personal hoard is better than gathering on the fly after the SHTF. The best thing about working as a volunteer and paid emergency responder (have done both) for local EMA, GEMA, FEMA, local hospital, regional coordinating hospital, Ma Bell plus doing locksmith and drug room security for doctors offices and ballistic barricades for local phamacies have a network of contacts and knowledge can leverage based on need. I could see liberating a locomotive if had the ability to feed it diesel. If the entire town or just a hundred neighbors able to cooperate were willing could cobble together a small local grid fairly easily.
 

hueyville

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Before then after church started pulling flashlights and radios from all but our two personal primary kits so if needed wife and I could select from two kits. Wife said she had some flashlights with dead batteries and would bring them as had in box next to her bed. A new house record, 17 flashlights with total of 54 batteries dead. Have told her for 30 years to stop using when get dim, don't cycle our batteries till totally dead. Of course I can recover any she kills with a half dozen different techniques. I can charge up to 52 batteries at a time on good quality smart chargers and more than double that if go to my fast chargers, dumb chargers and old chargers.

Gave her another lecture showing her measurements on equipment that may as well be something from NASA to her. I have been buying a new Nebo or equivalent light about every week or two wondering how so many have gone missing. Rule is when she gets five or six dim lights let me swap batteries but she have a brain hemmorage or the Chinese have released a new dumb disease. Actually think she has been stressed about unimportant things and just forgot the rule and getting a fresh light from my strategic placememts all around house when one dies.

Good thing is first 108 batteries (mostly Enelope, PowerX, Maha, etc) all came to full charge with chargers saying 9 of ten were over 100% of rated amperage capacity and voltage as marked. Have about a dozen that only came up into the low to mid 90% range lowest 89% highest being 97% that didn't make full rated capacities with mean value being 94%-95%. All of the batteries that did not make full power are dated between 1994 and 2001. So after 20 to 25 years have lost 5% capacity. I buy a pack sometimes two of new name brand professional rechargeable batteries whenever ha e to go in batteries plus. Have purchased at least six to eight new lights this year and pack of batteries with each light and one more twelve station smart charger this year to replace our "missing" inventory.

Wife was oblivious till showed her the price on a good light and good pack of batteries. She saw all the mid 1990s batteries coming up to near full charge and all 2004 to 2021 batteries going to 102% to 108% and said at least we won't ever have to buy more as many as we have and how long they last. Told her unless she turns dim units in before I notice a few missing I will stop and buy more so money spent on lights and batteries is on her. She doesn't like that grief showing me where box stays and that I should check it. Told her if she shoots a gun dry and moves it it's her responsibility to reload and return to station.

She can give me flashlights when supposed to or we will have enough AA, AAA, C and CR123 rechargeables to power the globe. Have a sixteen radios, scanners and cell phones charged from overt vests charged and just swapped sixteen more on charging stations so will have about a dozen to charge tomorrow and all small electronics are tested, charged if needed and put in proper places. I like my electronics always ready to go. still have the vests with built in power ports to charge and vests without to charge their spare batteries in accessory pouches.
 

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Southeast just got somewhat hammered by a winter storm. While ice and snow were contributing issues 50+ mph winds were wrecking power grid even in areas with no frozen precipitation. Early Sunday morning phone began to ring and had six people call by early/mid morning saying generators would not start. Common thread between all was owners said last time they ran was last power outage and some had gone at least two years since last used, two are professionally installed automated whole house systems.

Crank and run every generator I own twice per year then whenever a storm is forecast do a test run soon as forecasts say it's a possibility or as needed for off site work/power outage. Did this early Wednesdayday plus texted most friends/family have helped install generators or know have them but are slack to go test them.

Oddly four of six people who called me got that text to test run generators Wednesday. Told them if didn't run gave them 2.5 business days to get a tech to look or buy parts. My gasoline generators will turn on fuel, crank, soon as idling smoothly without choke turn off gas and let it run till sucks fuel out of bowl. Most generators fail due to rotten fuel gumming up carbs and why I keep rebuild kits just in case. End of winter I take bowl off carbs, dump little bit of fuel that never gets sucked out, clean and reassemble after spray a little lubricant on seals. Three of six who called yesterday morning still have no power and are trying to get generators serviced or parts today with zero luck.

Last night our power finally went down about 4am, since takes flipping two switches, making a connection (do not want a moron flipping generator breaker and back feeding 240 volts at 60 amps into it) and pushing one button to bring it live. Takes me five minutes from feet on floor to be on generator while batteries are keeping select number of lights and devices powered. Got house fully on generator, cleaned myself up and was changed back into pajamas when saw lights come up at neighbors homes. A whopping half hour of no power for us but let my generator run till 7:00 am so sure got oil to temperature cooking out any moisture it may have absorbed and burning some of the old fuel in tank.

Have option of running on natural gas, propane or gasoline. While natural gas or propane are cleaner gasoline gives 20% more energy and have added a slew of new systems to load it since installed 25 years ago so run it off gasoline if need HVAC system to run. If temps are nice usually run it on propane as super easy way mine is set up and don't have to worry about gas in carb.

Since we are in beginning of our 2.5 months of real winter will not do much now. Thursday did pour three of my half dozen five gallon cans of general need gasoline into mine & wife's trucks and refilled with 92 octane ethanol free plus marine grade Stabil. Don't want to break seals on any of my five gallon cans of racing fuel, sealed 55 gallon drum or tap into big tank as recently repurged with nitrogen.

The six folks whose generators didn't fire when needed did none of what we did when forecasters said winter storm was coming. North metro area is shooting gallery of idiots on roads when slick and temps are still under freezing so sitting at house as need nothing and to be hit by someone in rush to get to work after oversleeping because alarm didn't go off, had to go to friends for shower or looking for loaf of bread is not worth losing a truck. Three of my "friends" have asked me to come look at their generators and if unable to fix help them load with my bad back and all are in suck locations to move. Told them would have happily come Wednesday when sent text to test but my driveway has six inches of snow covered with an inch of ice and if leave house will be because 911 hauls someone away till roads are dry and temps warm up.

Tomorrow will be 50 and sunny and likely all three need carb kits then hope they can get them as two bought Chinese "copies" of Generac, other has Chinese copy of a Honda. My guess is all will have power, go to work and forget till next storm predicted and want me to put off my test runs of primary and backup generators to come fix their generators which will need a small engine shop rather than what I can do in their sheds last minute. Went down list of changing air cleaner, oil change, spark plugs, fresh fuel (ethanol or non, Stabil or not) and none could remember date of last service or last time ran. Mine have log of dates run, total hours, service dates and what service done. Also have carb kits, oil filters, air filters, fuses and plugs for all just in case.

All six who called believed if didnt run generator oil was fine. Told them if not run at least three times a year till hot oil needs swapped every year as is hydroscopic absorbing water, if drain will likely look like chocolate milk gone rank. The three Chinese copies have oil "slingers" instead of oil pumps. Believe reason my name brand with true oil pump but now undersize primary home generator still cranks on demand, can spool to top rpm whenever HVAC cycles and keeps running is because bring it to working temp at least twice per year, do full service every two years at minimum. Based on hours they get oil swapped more often if run very little or a whole lot (once on generator eight days) and air cleaner/spark plugs/oil filter based on run time.

Every storm get at least one call from someone in panic wanting me to drive to their home in middle of night while no snow plows throwing salt on icy bridges to start their generator. If ran battery dead or didn't check charge in battery and can't pull start days before storm I am not risking getting stranded and wife having nobody to refuel and keep our generator running for her. Primary rule of emergency response is securing your own family before activating and my wife can't handle topping off a hot generator from five gallon jug or swapping it from gasoline to propane without some help. She falls on ice fooling with it then we are screwed.

Did not top off generator when cooled as expect power to drop again as they shut down areas to make full repairs and remove tree limbs. Almost always have a period where power will drop and come back for half hour at a time several times on tail end of storm so when happens hope run enough fuel out can add a full five gallons of fresh. Fuel in machine is 18 months old but odds are it will get burned before winter ends but if not will drain, replace with fresh and old run in lawn equipment this spring. Have we all done our pre winter test run???
 

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-snip-
Most generators fail due to rotten fuel gumming up carbs...
-snip-
One thing that will help this a lot is to use only non-ethanol gasoline.
It has a longer life before going bad, and is much easier on your carburetor and fuel system.
I ONLY have used non-ethanol gasoline in all my saws and other power equipment for many years and it makes a big difference.

There likely is a place in your area that sells non-ethanol gasoline at the pump, it's just a matter of finding it.
Here's a link to one of many websites that lists many of them around the country that sell it.
https://www.pure-gas.org/extensions/maps.jsp
 

NFADLR

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Maybe its my out of date browser but this page does not load on my phene.



One thing that will help this a lot is to use only non-ethanol gasoline.
It has a longer life before going bad, and is much easier on your carburetor and fuel system.
I ONLY have used non-ethanol gasoline in all my saws and other power equipment for many years and it makes a big difference.

There likely is a place in your area that sells non-ethanol gasoline at the pump, it's just a matter of finding it.
Here's a link to one of many websites that lists many of them around the country that sell it.
https://www.pure-gas.org/extensions/maps.jsp
 

hueyville

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Did say all my generator fuel is non ethanol. Most of my small engine fuel buy in 12 quart cases with fuel in small cans so once crack it open odds are it will be burned before gets stale. Buy premixed fuel in same quart size cans except early spring always buy a gallon cans of Stihl branded fuel for my small engines. When replaced fuel in my generator five gallon jugs drove the extra few miles to get 92 octane ethanol free and put proper amount of Marine Stabil in can before added fuel. Am a freak about clean fuel and service which is probably why my small engines run 20 and 30 years without major issues.
 

edporch

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Did say all my generator fuel is non ethanol. Most of my small engine fuel buy in 12 quart cases with fuel in small cans so once crack it open odds are it will be burned before gets stale. Buy premixed fuel in same quart size cans except early spring always buy a gallon cans of Stihl branded fuel for my small engines. When replaced fuel in my generator five gallon jugs drove the extra few miles to get 92 octane ethanol free and put proper amount of Marine Stabil in can before added fuel. Am a freak about clean fuel and service which is probably why my small engines run 20 and 30 years without major issues.
Good choice using ethanol free gasoline.

In my case for example, I've mixed a batch of fuel for my chainsaw, and have used it into a 3rd summer until it runs out and it worked just fine.
I just make sure to keep it sealed air tight when not in use.
I would never do that with ethanol gasoline.
 

hueyville

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Another idea on gasoline before I mention batteries. Have a 55 gallon sealed drum of Shell 100 Avgas. Aviation fuel is leaded to increase the life and reliability of gas piston aircraft. Before I sold my hotrod when needed a fill up and was below 1/4 full would pour in a five gallon can of same 100 octane leaded aviation fuel then top it off with 92 octane ethanol free. Engine was designed to run on leaded gas, tank held 20 gallons so figured if five of every twenty was leaded it wasn't hurting it. All it could do is help promote longevity.

Have a 500 gallon tank of 92 octane ethanol free at work and home. Its a comfortable feeling especially now with Biden selling off our strategic reserve to China to have 900 gallons put back. Fuel companies won't top tanks due to expansion and contraction but after they fill and it settles purge the dead space with nitrogen like gas companies do in their huge storage tanks. Keeps oxygen from oxidizing the fuel, in winter can go three months and fall six to eight weeks but heat of summer I give it another shot of nitrogen once a month as the expansion contraction pushes nitrogen out and pulls atmosphere in and with our humidity that's another issue want to avoid, water in fuel.

If SHTF and have to conserve and hold that fuel for a long time plan is for every ten gallons use will mix 8:2 ratio of eight gallons from big tank then blend in two gallons of the 100 octane leaded aviation fuel for all my gasoline needs. Will ensure a decent octane level, help whatever run it in last longer and make me feel better. Since its summer picked up another gallon can of premix and pouring out of my oldest gallon can of premix since use so much more in summer. By time gallon can is used will move back to quarts. Have carb kits for every small engine I own so if parts store isn't open or carb kit need is sitting in China can fix my stuff.

In doing wifes bidding of organizing master bedroom also been sorting batteries, charging all my devices from spare phones, handheld radios and batteries. Have two baskets of batteries still destined to chargers and two boxes that are filled with charged batteries. Every flashlight could find, talking at least forty has fresh batteries, every weapons light has fresh as does night vision and flexible batteries that run the power hubs in my overt rifle armor is charged.

Did a count of charged small device batteries with quite a few left to charge but all devices being swapped to hot batteries if tested anywhere near the yellow line on tester. Have 56 AAs, 48 AAAs, five 9Vs, 20 D cells, 24 C cells and ten CR123s (not counting the six in butt stock compartment of each night vision rifle that uses them) all in nicads. Because nicads run a bit low voltage, 1.2 to 1.3 volts for AA and AAAs compared to 1.5 volts your standard alkaline puts out and many devices expect.

Rechargeable alkalines are finicky and take a really good quality charger made for them but get about a decade out of a cell before it begins to leak. Put them on a fast charger and may not get a dozen cycles. Have 36 charged AAs, 44 AAAs, 12 Cellsand 16 D cells ready to go. Checked dates on my lithiums (non rechargeable but have 7x more energy than alkaline and weigh 40% less and 10 year shelf life so use in certain devices) and have two sealed 24 count boxes of AAs and 36 left in a 60 count box of AAAs. Have a 6 left in oldest pack plus fresh 10 pack of PoweEx 9V lithiums so good on those as just don't use that many.

Have two sealed 12 packs of CR123 litniums and partial pack with 6 left. For some reason CR123 litniums only have seven year shelf life so won't buy another 12 pack till empty the partial pack. Most agree the Eneloop AA and AAAs are best rechargables, actually first thing to look for is where made regardless of brand. Japanese batteries are always better than Chinese made. Eneloop has the Pro with highest power reserve but only rated for 500 cycles. The standard Eneloops (made by Panasonic) are about 30% to 40% less than the Pros and are rated for 2,100 cycles. For SHTF that's big. EBL, PowerEx and even Emregizer makes good rechargeable batteries. So look for Japanese, balance power reserve, rated cycles and price to make your choice.

Remember the real magic is in the chargers. I use PowerEx, Maha, EBL and NightCore. Many will charge multiple battery types, able to select speed (slower you charge the battery longer it lasts), want each slot to charge indepent of others and I like chargers that hold 8 to 12 cells of assorted sizes. Need at least one charger that has discharge, refresh, break in and selective charge cycles.
 
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