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Old June 23, 2013, 19:34   #51
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The SHEILD bill passed the house last week to begin to get spare transformers. Meeting Tuesday in DC had new info. If SHEILD passes the senate it will be over ten years to get the basic transformers in storage. Huntsville tests now show that the harmonics of a geomagnetic storm will take out secondary trsansformers and some pole transformers.
I have a meeting coming up with EMP technical committee in mid-July. Should be interesting!
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Old June 23, 2013, 19:39   #52
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I have a meeting coming up with EMP technical committee in mid-July. Should be interesting!
You guys generate some white papers I'd like to be included in the distribution list. Either here or through my auspices at work. They be legit.
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Old July 04, 2013, 20:14   #53
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Meetings set for July 17th. Will have supper with the Air Force officer that ran the last complete EMP test of a C&C center. We chatted on the phone this week and some things he passed along.
The first thing after and EMP event obviuosly is the lights etc. will not work. Second thing will be fires. The EMP will heat electrical wiring in the walls to the point they will melt at bends and at outlets. 20-30% (depending on the distance from a high altitude 250 KT device) of buildings will be on fire with resulting pollution. He said we will talk more over supper.
Ammo boxes no good unless you ground the top were the gasket is. A good protector of gear is a galvanized garbage can. Make sure the lid is on tight.
He said for radios, NV and laser range finders that are with your gear or in your BOB, is go to TechProtectBag.com. They sell Faraday bags.
They sent me a Russian report briefed in May. Not good.
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Old July 05, 2013, 09:54   #54
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I am back into this topic again... I began reading "Lights Out" last week.

If you needed to put back a bunch of stuff... radios, a spare laptop, generators, etc... how would you do it? Let's say you have a basic gun safe size unit you are trying to protect.

PS - how will generators fare in the pulse?
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Old July 05, 2013, 09:57   #55
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Also... vehicle packages...

If you wanted to set up a small shoe box to go into a car to hold a radio, etc... how could you protect it? (Thinking of getting in touch with the wife here...)

Also... would red dot scopes hold up?
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Old July 05, 2013, 14:40   #56
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Steel Garbage cans. I bought a 1970 dodge truck and am putting it back togather. In the tool box I am bagging spare parts for the old magnetic ignition ( voltage regulator, control box and spare diodes for the alternator.( had a points disrubator but points are getting harder to come by.) Radios , red dot etc into the mylar baggies.
I'll ask about generators. When I got mine I got an industrial 5Kw unit and I told them I work at sites with a lot of lightening and I got a unit from Germany that had built in surge ( voltage and current) protection.
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Old July 17, 2013, 05:31   #57
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If not........sure would be snazzy!
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Old July 17, 2013, 09:34   #58
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I would think so but I hope I would not be touching the door handle when the pulse came through!!! Low amps probably and a higher resistance than the grounding strap but still don't want to be that test subject.

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So, if I take my shop, 24'x36' pole barn with steel sheet roof and siding, bond the steel roof panels to the side panels then ground side panels to earth, ground rollup door rails to siding, which should ground the steel rollup doors. Also, the two man doors are steel and would be bonded to the siding as well. The ground bonding would be braided ground straps left over from cell phone site installations.

This should do a pretty good job of turning my shop into a giant farady cage don't ya think?
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Old July 17, 2013, 22:03   #59
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lets bring this down to a smaller level. Will LED falshlights survive an EMP pulse being that a LED contains PN junctions? I also run 15 LEB bulbs in my house. would i be better off with an incadescent filament bulb for emergency flashights?
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Old July 21, 2013, 12:49   #60
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Just got back from DC, meeting with Peter Pry and other folks.
Pole barn will not make it. You have to have it totally sealed from Rf radiation. The Rf wave will travel thru the earth ( ground), only after it is converted by a conductor ( metal) to electricity can you direct it to ground. Metal building may reduce the effect ( or in some cases amplify it). Small things like the leads on an LED may not pick up enough to fry the PN junction.
OK news from dinner discussions:
automotive; The parts that will fail in vehicles are computer parts with long wire leads. In tests, alternators, generators, coils, etc will in general will survive. Control systems using electronics have problems. Vehicles prior to about 1975 had very little issues. Late 70s and 80s had more problems but things got better by the 90s because of lightening strikes force the automobile manufactureres to build in better reduncency. This was true up to about 2002 when maybe 20% failed. They have not done tests on the newer vehicles but the thought is the new On board diagnostic (OBD) system can handle some "noise" from the sensors but may have trouble with multiple point failures. OBD II will be worse becaise although the processor will be protected, with will kill the car when it senses multiple sensor failures.
Generators: most will survive if they are not connected.
Radios, NV etc. Put them into protected metal bags or garbage can. Same with computers.
Buildings: Tests show the average house will have between 80-100 arch points in the outlets and wiring in the wall. Best protection is surge protected outlets. Look at your fuse box and put one surge protector on each of the listed segments in the house. Better yet is to put a line surge protector on the line coming into the fuse box.
I saw some simulations in which some cities become firestorms which resembled Dersden, Hamburg and Toyko Literally after the pulse within an hour fires burned so fierce that oxygen is gone and winds into the center excede 150 mph. If transportation/ communications go thru there figure no repair possible. Chemicals from these fires will be toxic possibly hundreds of miles down wind and will affect agriculture in areas it settles out.
Even if they don't burn down at first, when power comes back on, buildings will burn because of melted junctions etc.
There was something new with geomagnetic storms and induced ground currents that are collected by a city's infrasturcture ( Ie, pipes and wires in the ground) and causes a new type of situation which we haven't seen before. I didn't have a chance to talk to the guys looking at this, but next trip.
Global situation:
Seems that Noth Korea and especially Iran have worked out some details for ship lunched devices. These guys activities have increased in the Gulf of Mexico and ships have been parking in ports in Venezuela and Ecuador for extended periods. Maybe part of a deployment exercise.
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Old July 21, 2013, 15:32   #61
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C2A1. we appreciate this info!
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Old July 22, 2013, 14:36   #62
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C2A1. we appreciate this info!
I second that! Arc points in a house is something I hadn't even thought of, that would have caught me off guard. Surge protectors on each breaker?
I'm not sure what you mean by listed segments in the house:

" Best protection is surge protected outlets. Look at your fuse box and put one surge protector on each of the listed segments in the house. Better yet is to put a line surge protector on the line coming into the fuse box."

So what to do then for a metal building if the RF will travel through the ground? Poles in the ground to act as conductors? But where then do they discharge? Static wicks on aircraft simply discharge to the air, same sort've principle for a metal building?
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Old July 22, 2013, 14:41   #63
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What are some of these arc points? Frays in wiring and other out of spec places? Or are they things like the short piece of bare wire as it goes into the outlet connection point? Something else?
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Old July 25, 2013, 10:35   #64
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Arch points will occur anywhere where there is a change in the impedence in the wire. This will mainly be at junction points, switches, outlets, wire crimping/splices and sharp bends. Note these are voltage surges that are high enough that it will arch thru the insulation.
The surge protectors arch over early so to speak and give the energy someplace to go. Looking at your fuse box, basicly provides a diagram of the seperate circuits jn your house and by putting a surge protector on each of those circuits will help stop the arching issue. It is not fool proof but maybe enough to avoid major arching. Not every arch will cause a fire. I have seen lightning arches in kitchen outlets and telephones explode. The issue with EMP is that it lasts longer so these arches are sustained.
It will also depend on where you are located relative to the EMP source, which is further complicated by the grid itself( areas like cities with lots of wires act like giant antennea collecting the Rf energy and sharing it).
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Old July 25, 2013, 16:45   #65
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Thanks for all the time and info.

So the best bet for a house would be to add a line surge protector coming into the fuse box rather than one for each segment?
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Old July 28, 2013, 18:15   #66
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That was what I was told. Been asked to attend another meeting the end of August. Seems the Panama deal has stirred the pot.
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Old July 30, 2013, 18:43   #67
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The issue with EMP is that it lasts longer so these arches are sustained.
Do you have a reference where this came from?
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Old July 31, 2013, 16:17   #68
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Timely discussion.

http://washingtonexaminer.com/massiv...rticle/2533727
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Old August 01, 2013, 15:20   #69
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It comes from the USAF officer in charge of the last tests. Basicly you have two voltage/current waves, E1 which is the airborne or free space component and the E3 which is the one picked up and carried by the ground. In the case of lightening, it is trying to seek ground but with EMP it is charge flowing away from the event ( free floating ground). The E3 is the damaging component. In lightening it lasts for about 10 millisecs, Nuclear EMP it lasts 5 minutes. In a geomagnetic storms it can last hours. The surge peotectors don't stop the surge but slow down it's risetime so the arching occurs at the protector, not at random points in the line. I'll ask him for published references when I see him.
In conversion today, we got talking about ground burst EMP. which isn't talked about much. However, it seems that a ground burst will generate in pipes and wires around the burst in a city currrents of >1 million amps. The wires and pipes vaporize but carry the charge away from the EMP site down the pipes and wires. Depending on the the city this will take out anything connected to the grid for a long ways (100 miles), thus creating electrical power dead zones.
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Old August 06, 2013, 10:28   #70
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The DOD side is interesting and can only cover certain things but the DOD is pondering what to do after an EMP or geomagnetic event. They are working under the plan that we will lose over half of the population, maybe 2/3rds. They believe that we would be ripe for actual invasion, at least in some areas. They also realize that our nuclear forces will be operational but tatical forces will be very limited. Old systems such as the B-52/F-15/16 and cold war systems will be operational but new system probably not. In any case, the country would geopolitically kind of be like the 1860s. Large land area with small population and restricted resources for a very long time (5 -10 years). In the case of a geomagnetic event it hits the whole planet and everybody is in the same boat, so the world will be in an isolation mode. Southwest will be in trouble in the sense that the cartels would represent and 'organized' group that over several years may become the defacto govt in northern Mexico and southwestern US ( Cali to the mississipi river and north into Oregon, Nevada, Colorado, parts of Kansas etc.) On the other hand there are plans to "stabalize" northern Mexico. Think 1880s, not only technologically but also geopolictically in the southwest.
Also where are the COG sites? They are not on the east coast. Connect the dots. Where are they closing bases and enlargeing bases?
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Old August 14, 2013, 13:59   #71
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Was there any mention of what effect a lake would have on the ground part?
Water is a conductor, better than the soil, however if an individual is located on the lee side of a lake from the approaching emp pulse in the ground has there been any mention of what effect a large body of water would have on the wave?
I have a large partially curved lake between myself & a larger city, I wonder if that's a benefit or a liability, or no difference at all?

As to the grounding of buildings, metal ones, essentially there's not much you can do to ground the building or otherwise nullify or lower the emp effect?
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Old August 18, 2013, 19:37   #72
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Salt water will protect the submarines. Freahwater lakes will have little effect. In the case of EMP it is generating voltage potentials basicly everywhere. Geomagnetics will generate a voltage in a conductor such as a building faster than the earth so grounding the building will be like a lightning grounding. However, it will seek path of least resistence so you might be it. Durning the big storn in the 1850s people were killed b telegraph lines and in one case a fence line. However, the ground currents will get the electrical systems.
As a side, got a call yesterday and it seems the magnetic poles on some solar structures is shriking in size meeting the feild will flip. This is where large flares originate. Looks like the flip will ocur in about 120 days. Of course the sun is rotating, so will the flare common our way, not likely but still makes folks nervous.
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Old August 18, 2013, 19:41   #73
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Man, it reminds me of the electric storm stories in the Dust Bowl.
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Old August 19, 2013, 16:04   #74
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Drills

NERC will host GridEx 2013 on November 13,14, 2013

North American wide distributed play exercise

Executive “policy trigger” table top exercise on 14 November

http://www.spp.org/publications/13%2...13%29%20V2.pdf
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Old September 09, 2013, 19:46   #75
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http://www.empcommission.org/

Good stuff here.

Report of the Commission to Assess the
Threat to the United States from
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack



P 115

"We tested a sample of 37 cars in an EMP simulation laboratory, with automobile vintages ranging from 1986 through 2002. Automobiles of these vintages include extensive
electronics and represent a significant fraction of automobiles on the road today. The
testing was conducted by exposing running and nonrunning automobiles to sequentially
increasing EMP field intensities. If anomalous response (either temporary or permanent)
was observed, the testing of that particular automobile was stopped. If no anomalous
response was observed, the testing was continued up to the field intensity limits of the
simulation capability (approximately 50 kV/m).
Automobiles were subjected to EMP environments under both engine turned off and
engine turned on conditions. No effects were subsequently observed in those automobiles
that were not turned on during EMP exposure. The most serious effect observed on running automobiles was that the motors in three cars stopped at field strengths of approximately 30 kV/m or above. In an actual EMP exposure, these vehicles would glide to a
stop and require the driver to restart them. Electronics in the dashboard of one automobile
were damaged and required repair. Other effects were relatively minor. Twenty-five
automobiles exhibited malfunctions that could be considered only a nuisance (e.g.,
blinking dashboard lights) and did not require driver intervention to correct. Eight of the
37 cars tested did not exhibit any anomalous response.
Based on these test results, we expect few automobile effects at EMP field levels below
25 kV/m. Approximately 10 percent or more of the automobiles exposed to higher field
levels may experience serious EMP effects, including engine stall, that require driver
intervention to correct. We further expect that at least two out of three automobiles on the
road will manifest some nuisance response at these higher field levels. The serious malfunctions could trigger car crashes on U.S. highways; the nuisance malfunctions could
exacerbate this condition. The ultimate result of automobile EMP exposure could be triggered crashes that damage many more vehicles than are damaged by the EMP, the consequent loss of life, and multiple injuries."
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Old September 09, 2013, 22:21   #76
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Just a somewhat unrelated comment...

I'll take a 10MT burst (and the resulting EMP) at 60 miles altitude any day compared to 0.5MT at 5 miles...

In the first scenario, my M1 Garand will be working just fine. In the second, my ass is probably grass...

Just sayin'...

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Old September 10, 2013, 11:35   #77
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I know that I am a late entry to this discussion, but all this talk of prepping for an Emp got me to thinking, "What use are most of these preps going to be if you have no idea if or when an Emp is going to strike?". If one does strike, will not all cell phones and most radios be useless anyway, the power grid will be disabled, gas stations will be shut down, banks/ATM's and grocery stores will be closed and so on. Your best chance for survival will be doing what many of us are already doing, reloading ammo, working with like-minded, worthwhile neighbors in self preservation projects and engaging in food production and other life saving activities.
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Old September 10, 2013, 12:54   #78
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Reloading ammo is not a survival technique. It is a conservation methodology which will only last as long as stored components.
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Old September 10, 2013, 13:06   #79
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I would like to know if the " Static Protection" bags we use on aircraft avionics equipment would provide any protection from a EMP event, kind of hard to carry a trash can in your car.
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Old September 11, 2013, 20:26   #80
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I'll check on the static protection bags.
Just back from the meetings. Things of note. 6 states are moving to protect the grids there ( Utah just signed on). The end of the month a new electrical outlet which protects against EMP surges will become available. They are in test for the EMP task force. First tests look good. I'll post where to get these outlets once the tests confirm their performance.
Bad news we almost went to nukes on Sept 3rd. US/Isreali missle launch from mid med to east near Isreal. Russian picked up the launch and thought is was a pre-emptive strike on the anti-aircraft cruisers just off Syria. Russia went to full alert and the cruisers armed 250 KT anti-ship missles for immediate launch. Closest we have come since the 1995 Norway situation.
As a side note syria has taken deleivery of supersonic cruise missles. The region was discribed as like Europe in 1916.
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Old September 12, 2013, 07:47   #81
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http://www.debka.com/article/23253/I...-Mediterranean
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Old September 16, 2013, 09:41   #82
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Yes, the static protection bags will work. Make sure they are closed and sealed.
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Old September 16, 2013, 10:01   #83
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Yes, the static protection bags will work. Make sure they are closed and sealed.
I bought some here a while back to put a Shortwave and some FRS radios in.

http://thelibertyman.com/gear.shtml
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Old September 19, 2013, 16:16   #84
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I know that I am a late entry to this discussion, but all this talk of prepping for an Emp got me to thinking, "What use are most of these preps going to be if you have no idea if or when an Emp is going to strike?". If one does strike, will not all cell phones and most radios be useless anyway, the power grid will be disabled, gas stations will be shut down, banks/ATM's and grocery stores will be closed and so on. Your best chance for survival will be doing what many of us are already doing, reloading ammo, working with like-minded, worthwhile neighbors in self preservation projects and engaging in food production and other life saving activities.
I agree with Wonderdog. There won't be electricity so why worry about protecting things that use it. I can see protecting a vehicle or a tractor especially the tractor. Other than that we need to be thinking of how to surive without electricity using old techniques of our grandparents.
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Old September 19, 2013, 16:22   #85
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The reason you protect SW radios and walkie talkies (FRS etc) is so you might catch some news from other (unaffected) parts of the world and so you will be able to communicate with your family/group.

Most SW broadcasters have an English Language broadcast weekly.

You need to be putting back a ton of batteries for these devices and maybe rechargeables with a solar charger as well...
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Old September 20, 2013, 11:22   #86
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My thought also is to keep certain optics (NV, red dots and rangefinders) going as long as possible. The EMP taskforce is attached informally to the DHS continuation of government (COG) team. As such have gotten some insight as to how the COG team sees things going down and the timelines. Let's say that certain COG members could be on Natgeo. The fact that some vehicles are operational is not really a good thing as in the long term (6 mos to 2 years) you will live more like road warrior than 1880 america. This will waste more resources and delay recovery.
The reason EMP issues are coming to the forefront is that it is the one weapon that can be used to neutralize the US and is affordable to those that we may face. To get the grid fixed will take over a decade if we do it. Add to that the geopolitical issues evolving ( China collaspe, Russia expansion and a world of bad actors POed at the US) and it is on the level of global thermonuclear war as far as we are concerned.
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Old September 20, 2013, 11:40   #87
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Do you have any info if LED flashlights will be affected...I know they have a chip so I thought they were susceptible.
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Old September 20, 2013, 11:40   #88
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Perhaps I missed it but I did not see any discussion on what would happen to our nuke plants. Seems a dozen or more Fukushima events would pretty much settle things permanently.
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Old September 20, 2013, 17:40   #89
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I'll check on Monday as I will be on the phone with one of the test directors. I do know that non shielded ICs get fried. Computers that are not plugged in don't make it. The ICs in automobles has the metal protection and are build into redundent systems to survive lightening. There is a question about the new enviromental systems in autos which shut down the vehicle if you don't meet emission standards. The new systems I understand shut off the AC and other systems including limiting speed. These systems may see the EMP pulse as enviromental issues. Here they figure the cars still runs after a lightening strike and you will head off to the dealer.
I'll ask.
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Old September 20, 2013, 18:26   #90
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Originally Posted by C2A1 View Post
I'll check on Monday as I will be on the phone with one of the test directors. I do know that non shielded ICs get fried. Computers that are not plugged in don't make it. The ICs in automobles has the metal protection and are build into redundent systems to survive lightening. There is a question about the new enviromental systems in autos which shut down the vehicle if you don't meet emission standards. The new systems I understand shut off the AC and other systems including limiting speed. These systems may see the EMP pulse as enviromental issues. Here they figure the cars still runs after a lightening strike and you will head off to the dealer.
I'll ask.
Thank you!
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Old September 20, 2013, 18:40   #91
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Press TV reporting......

Magnetic bomb explosion rocks Afghan capital
Fri Sep 20, 2013 6:24PM GMT

A magnetic bomb has exploded in a densely populated area of the Afghan capital, Kabul, creating panic and sending shock waves across the violence-wracked city.

http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/09...on-hits-kabul/

EMP or....Magnetic as stuck to a vehicle or something.
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I'm just a peckerwood who lives in the hills with too many hours on Call of Duty.

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Old September 24, 2013, 11:10   #92
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LEDs should make it if they are in a metal case. In actual practice, no one knows for sure. To that end they asked if I want to test items on a "space available" situation. So I am going to test some LED flash lights, red dots and laser pointers.
Magnetic explosives, I think refers to a magnetic mine attachment.
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Old September 24, 2013, 11:26   #93
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LEDs should make it if they are in a metal case. In actual practice, no one knows for sure. To that end they asked if I want to test items on a "space available" situation. So I am going to test some LED flash lights, red dots and laser pointers.
Magnetic explosives, I think refers to a magnetic mine attachment.

Thank you!

I really appreciate you sharing this info with us!

I have some cell phone sized Faraday bags and I'm going to go ahead and stick some of my Gerber Infinity Ultra Task Lights into them.

ETA:

I bagged 4 lights and my pocket solar battery charger in Faraday bags.
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Old September 25, 2013, 20:57   #94
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Are You Ready For a Complete Power Grid Blackout?

It’s the most fragile part of our infrastructure. The power grid. Could the nation’s power grid withstand physical and cyber attacks?

In a report published on the technology website Ars Technica says that one power company received an incredible 10,000 attempted cyber attacks per month.

U.S. Reps. Edward Markey (D-MA) and Henry Waxman (D-CA) sent 15 questions to more than 150 utilities and received replies from 112 of them. Only 53 utilities responded to all of the questions, and their answers will shock you.PWER GRID

More than a dozen utilities reported “daily,” “constant,” or “frequent” attempted cyber attacks ranging from phishing to malware infection to unfriendly probes. A Midwestern power provider said that it was “subject to ongoing malicious cyber and physical activity. For example, we see probes on our network to look for vulnerabilities in our systems and applications on a daily basis. Much of this activity is automated and dynamic in nature—able to adapt to what is discovered during its probing process.”

How can we make sure those attempts aren’t successful?

According to the New York Times, that hair-raising, nerve-wracking question will be put to the test in November when a full-scale drill takes place, testing our preparedness.

Thousands of utility workers, business executives, National Guard officers, FBI anti-terrorism experts and other government officials here and in Canada and Mexico will participate in the drill that will simulate both physical and cyber attacks that could potentially cripple large sections of the power grid.

“It’s a simulation, sort of,” said a compliance officer at a large power company. “The program administrator will inject these simulations and test their response team to see what the reaction is and how fast you can get your grip back up.”


More @
http://benswann.com/are-you-ready-fo...grid-blackout/
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I'm just a peckerwood who lives in the hills with too many hours on Call of Duty.

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Old September 27, 2013, 11:50   #95
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Power failure snarls NYC commute for thousands
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/n...ticut/2876761/
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Old October 11, 2013, 17:26   #96
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American Blackout on National Geographic.....Sunday 10/27 at 9pm. Will you survive?

http://channel.nationalgeographic.co...ckout-trailer/
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Old October 11, 2013, 19:59   #97
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This thread terrifies me, thanks!
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Old October 12, 2013, 18:18   #98
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This a very interesting thread.
Any updates on the outlets ?




Quote:
Originally Posted by C2A1 View Post
LEDs should make it if they are in a metal case. In actual practice, no one knows for sure. To that end they asked if I want to test items on a "space available" situation. So I am going to test some LED flash lights, red dots and laser pointers.
Magnetic explosives, I think refers to a magnetic mine attachment.
I would be interested in knowing about this.
I use LED bulbs in non essential areas.




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Old October 12, 2013, 18:38   #99
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Yes, the static protection bags will work. Make sure they are closed and sealed.
Is that what they are saying these days, that plastic anti-static bags will protect against EMP?

Good luck with that one...

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Old October 12, 2013, 18:59   #100
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Just got back from meetings.
LEDs should be OK. Short leads and devices have high junction current. However, I am putting a couple into the next tests.
Geomagnetics:
Last CME had some folks sweating. On the evening of Oct 1st we came within 11 hours of waking up on Oct 2nd in 1880. Very large CME pased forward of the earth. Would hve fried the grids all the way down into deep Mexico.
A series of CMEs will begin in about 6 weeks as the sunspots migrate to the solar equator and reverse polarity.
Plan put forward to allow State/National guard to shut down the grid for 48 hrs to save the generators beat down by the utilities. Had an interesting discussion on liabilities and private property isssues. I guess those CEOs will accept the responsibility of 120 million dead. However, Texas is fully preparing to beable to discontect and shut down if need be to protect the grid within Texas.
EMP
Power projection breifing on te current situation in Russia. Hugh funding increase for enhanced radiation weapons. It appears Russia is looking at Georgia and Ukaine as a first step in preserving Russian borders. The lose of power projection from NATO is fueling Russian postioning. It appears that an EMP burst over northern europe would eliminate most interference with the operation. I guess Poland is pinching off a twinke over this ( and none of this has appeared in the news over here.) This won't happen in the next week but the Russians are looking at this playing out over the next few years. They figure the threat of an EMP strike on the US will keep our president quite. The russians may even work it out is such a way to allow our persident to use the european situation to consolidate power here. ( sometimes these meetings don't make you feel to good.) Anyway, Putin is looking at the energy requirement in Europe, to keep Germany etc quite and let Russia move back to it's former boarders to some degree ( not unlike Hitler and appeasement). As a ace, are the EMP weapons. Russia must do this move by 2020 or sooner depending on who gets elected in the US in 2014. (sensing a shift for 2016).
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